And when you saw his chariot but appear,
Have you not made an universal shout,
That Tiber trembled underneath her banks,
To hear the replication of your sounds
Made in her concave shores?
And do you now put on your best attire?
And do you now cull out a holiday?
And do you now strew flowers in his way
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood? Be gone!
Run to your houses, fall upon your knees,
Pray to the gods to intermit the plague
That needs must light on this ingratitude.
· The extract is from Act 1.1. Marullus (a Tribune) is chastising the plebians for celebrating Caesar’s victory over Pompey.
1. This action takes place after Pompey’s defeat, where Caesar went against the First Triumvirate and betrayed the code of conduct he is now returning victorious to Rome.
2. Initially the Plebians had been loyal to Pompey as a ‘universal’ shout would be heard every time Pompey’s chariot would pass.
3. The use of anaphora and rhetorical questions in lines 47-50 are meant to induce guilt in the plebians for being disloyal to Rome and making merry.
4. The use of imperatives ‘run’, ‘pray’ also shows the authority of the Tribunes who are evidently against Caesar. Furthermore, there is an allusion to the plague (which had affected the citizens of Elizabethan England) is used by Marullus to induce terror in the superstitious, god-fearing commoners for betraying Rome.
5. This extract foreshadows the conflict between Caesar and the Senate, as well as showing the citizens to be fickle-minded in their loyalties.


Well, Brutus, thou art noble; yet, I see,
Thy honourable metal may be wrought
From that it is disposed: therefore it is meet
That noble minds keep ever with their likes;
For who so firm that cannot be seduced?
Caesar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus:
If I were Brutus now and he were Cassius,
He should not humour me. I will this night,
In several hands, in at his windows throw,
As if they came from several citizens,
Writings all tending to the great opinion
That Rome holds of his name; wherein obscurely
Caesar's ambition shall be glanced at:
And after this let Caesar seat him sure;
For we will shake him, or worse days endure.

· The extract is from the end of Act 1.2, after Cassius attempts to persuade Brutus that Caesar doesn’t deserve to be crowned Emperor of Rome
1. It is a soliloquy which reveals Cassius’ intention to manipulate Brutus into betraying Caesar by forging letters.
2. The motif of ‘noble Brutus’ which runs through the play is mentioned in this extract. It adds a note of dramatic irony as Brutus will actually be supporting an ignoble cause by being disloyal to Caesar.
3. Shakespeare uses a metaphor ‘metal’- like molten metal that is pliable, so too is Brutus’ will.
4. There is also wordplay as ‘mettle’- refers to Brutus’ temperament and spirit, which Cassius is controlling
5. This extract reveals how flattery leads to disloyalty- by making Brutus believe that the citizens of Rome have a ‘great opinion’ of ‘his name’ leads him to convince himself that betraying Caesar is in the interest of the greater good.
6. This scene is also the first time that we see tangible evidence of Cassius’ disloyalty towards Caesar.


They are the faction. O conspiracy,
Shamest thou to show thy dangerous brow by night,
When evils are most free? O, then by day
Where wilt thou find a cavern dark enough
To mask thy monstrous visage? Seek none, conspiracy;
Hide it in smiles and affability:
For if thou path, thy native semblance on,
Not Erebus itself were dim enough
To hide thee from prevention.
· This extract is Brutus’ soliloquy from Act 2.1.
1. He says these words just before he meets the other conspirators and they prove that Brutus will betray Caesar
2. In this extract, Brutus personifies the conspiracy- this show that the conspirators are one entity and will be loyal to the cause.
3. Brutus compares the darkness of their deed to Erebus (hell) to show the extent of their sin- going against the head of state was tantamount to disobeying god.
4. The setting of night-time adds to the sinister mood which is befitting for conspiracies
5. Brutus claims that even the night cannot conceal their heinous purposes under the cloak of darkness- he refers to the deed as ‘monstrous’ to show it is unnatural to go against his friend and head of state
6. The theme of appearance versus reality is highlighted- the conspirators will pretend to be loyal to Caesar by being all ‘smiles and affability’ when in truth they will be betraying on the coronation day.

I have, when you have heard what I can say:
And know it now: the senate have concluded
To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar.
If you shall send them word you will not come,
Their minds may change. Besides, it were a mock
Apt to be render'd, for someone to say
'Break up the senate till another time,
When Caesar's wife shall meet with better dreams.'
If Caesar hide himself, shall they not whisper
'Lo, Caesar is afraid'?
Pardon me, Caesar; for my dear dear love
To our proceeding bids me tell you this;
And reason to my love is liable.

· This extract is from Act 2.2; Decius convinces Caesar to attend his coronation at the Capitol in spite of Calphurnia’s misgivings.
1. Decius pretends to swear his allegiance to Caesar by indicating his ‘dear, dear love’
2. Dramatic irony- the audience knows that Decius is one of the conspirators who will betray Caesar in the next act
3. Decius pretends to have Caesar’s best interests at heart but he actually is using a variety of techniques to flatter Caesar- he does so by addressing him as ‘mighty Caesar;
4. Understands Caesar’s psyche- he cleverly says that if Caesar doesn’t appear for his coronation, people will wonder ‘Lo, Caesar is afraid’- this would put Caesar in a negative light. We know that Caesar wants to present himself as invincible in front of public.
5. The speech subtle mocks Calphurnia, who actual is loyal to Caesar
6. Also, Decius knows that Caesar is eager for the crown and he plays on Caesar’s insecurities by stating that the senate might change their minds if their leader was superstitious
7. This speech clearly shows that Deicus is loyal to the conspirators’ cause- assassinate Caesar.