Writer’s Effects Process (from the CIE)
1. Skim reading
(Read passage to get a sense of time, place, topic, genre, tone and atmosphere.)

2. Scanning and Selecting
(After reading the question on writer’s effects (paper 2 question 2), and underlining the key word in each part of the question, return to passage and highlight (possibly in two colours for the two different aspects) the relevant material. Identify and highlight only the key word or phrase which is particularly effective, not a large ‘chunk’ of text. Aim to find approximately five choices for each part of the question)

3. Transferring to a plan
(Transfer the chosen quotations to a list, dividing them into the two sectons. Against each choice explain the effect it is conveying and the reason for the word or short phrase being effective. Pay particular attention to figurative language i.e. similes and metaphors. You may use literary terms if they are relevant and accurate, but you still need to explain the precise effect of the particular example you have chosen.)

4. Developing the response
(Look again at the passage, this time at the use of such devices as repetition, contrast, question marks or exclamation marks, sentence lengths, sound effects. Add to the beginning or end of each section of your plan a brief overview comment which draws an overall conclusion about the aim and combined effect of the language of the passage e.g. ‘An atmosphere of fear is created through the use of short questions and repetition of references to darkness.’)

5. Writing the response
(The response should be written carefully, putting the quotations from the passage in inverted commas within each sentence explaining its effect, and not repeating unnecessarily the words ‘The effect is ...’. For full marks there should be a range of choices with their effects, and a sense of overview. The choices should not be ‘clumped’ in groups but treated separately. The whole response is expected to be a side to a side and a half of writing.)